b'AEGC 2023Short abstractsInsights into wettability and relative permeabilityOur results show significant differentiation of leakage through curves of coal. the seal with CO 2saturation ranging between 10 and 50%. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simultaneous inversion of E yWen Xi, Fatimah Alzubaidi, Sajad Abolpour Moshizi, Peymanand E zsynthetic electric field data facilitates a sharper delineation Mostaghimi and Ryan Armstrong of a CO 2saturated chimney structure within the seal, whereas E zUniversity of New South Wales synthetic data present higher sensitivity than E yto variation on CO 2saturations. This study illustrates the value of incorporating Understanding and predicting multiphase flow of water andCSEM into measurement, monitoring, and verification (MMV) gas is necessary to optimise gas production from coal seamstrategies for optimal operation of marine CCS sites.gas (CSG) reservoirs. This paper provides novel insights into the two-phase flow of gas and water in fractured coal byAdvanced petrophysical applications and data incorporating high-pressure high-resolution X-ray micro- integration to discriminate primary and secondary computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, steady-state relative permeability experiments and static and dynamicpyritisation for prospecting.contact angle measurements. We start the analysis byBorzou Zeinand Mosayeb Khademi Zahedi1 2understanding wettability of coal using captive bubble method and in-situ imaging. The captive bubble contact angle is1 Consultant measured by wetting the surface of a coal sample with brine2 Rocca Energyand a gas bubble and visualising it in a high-pressure, high-temperature cell. The in-situ contact angle is calculated fromA sedimentary complex from Bedout Basin in North West Shelf the micro-CT images obtained during the two-phase flooding.(NWS) of Australia has been analysed using petrophysical, After that, we run steady state injection of methane/helium andgeochemical, petrography and Chemostratigraphy data to brine into coal at high pressure and monitor the displacementassess the occurrence of sulfidation and oxidation processes.processes using high-resolution micro-CT imaging. The floodingSandstones and clays are the dominant lithologies with experiments provide the relative flow of both phases at differentthicknesses varying in the magnitude of meter scale saturation points that are used for prediction of relativefrom Lower to Upper Tertiary. The existence of pyritisation in permeability curves while micro-CT images demonstratesandstone sediment indicates correlation with porosity and details of fluids arrangements within the cleat system. Coalpermeability with higher contents in porous and permeable sample is tested under various stress conditions to identify thesandstones. The Lower Tertiary sandstones show porosities trends in coal relative permeability during the CSG productionand permeabilities on the order of ~ 5 to 18 % and ~ 15 processes as the reservoir ages and the pore pressure declines.to 500 mD, respectively. We interpret the higher volume Methane and helium are the representatives of absorbing andof pyritisation observed in sandstone units compared to non-absorbing gas, respectively. The relative permeabilityclaystone and shales is related to sediments burial processes, is measured using methane and helium gasses at constantincreased burial temperature and higher porosity and pressure and the results show how gas sorption can affectpermeabilities of these units.the resulting curves. The work presents an in-depth analysis of coal relative permeability and wettability using micro-CT Integrated Multi-Mineral petrophysical interpretation imaging and steady-state flooding experiments. The resultsof Gamma Ray, Density, Neutron,Resistivity and Spectral show how relative permeability curves change as productionNatural Gamma Ray logs show indications consistent with from a reservoir continues and can help reservoir engineer buildour observations from processed image log. These results high-fidelity models of coal seam gas reservoirs for prediction ofcan be used to identify and quantify the pyritisation in future production rates. sandstone sediments. The discrimination between primary and secondary pyritisation can be inferred through petrography. Chemostratigraphy interpretation results integrated with The role of CSEM in carbon capture and storagepetrophysical data also provide elemental and mineralogical monitoring. boundaries which give insights into identifying the alteration and oxidation zones. This integrated approach can be applied Naima Yilo to identify pyritisation processes which suggest the existence of Southampton University / Explore GEO iron, and more importantly within an environment of dissolved sulphides which can control the distribution of mineralisationCarbon capture and storage (CCS) within sealed geologiccopper and gold for example.formations is an essential strategy to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions- the primary goal of the 2015 United Nations Paris agreement. Large scale commercialSemi-automated identification of regolith/basement development of geological CO 2storage requires high- interfaces using hyperspectral and geochemical data: resolution remote sensing methods to monitor CO 2 migrationA MinEx CRC project.during/after injection. A geologic formation containing a CO 2phase in its pore space commonly exhibits higher electricalHamid Zekri, David Cohen, Neil Rutherford, David Giles, resistivity than saline-saturated background sediments. Here,Caroline Tiddy, Chris Folkes, Rob Thorne and June Hillwe study the capability of the marine controlled-sourceMineral Exploration Cooperative Research Centreelectromagnetic (CSEM) method to monitor minor/moderate changes in CO 2saturation at a storage site using a suite ofRegolith has the capacity to mask underlying mineralisation synthetic studies. With the aim of analysing CSEMs sensitivityby restricting the migration of most trace elements to the to detect CO 2leakage, we model a chimney structure withinsurface. Characterising the cover sequences is the main way the seal with varying saturation. in which this zone can be used to enhance rather than hinder FEBRUARY 2023 PREVIEW 154'