b'AEGC 2023Short abstractshave been frequently used for hydrocarbon exploration inrepresented in the geochemistry or visual logging. Active and recent years. These marine seismic acquisition solutions enablepassive seismic, electromagnetics, and ground-penetrating accurate imaging from very shallow targets and geohazardsradar show variable success in mapping different interfaces.to deep geological structures in a cost-effective manner. The better distribution for of the near offsets and the dense spatial sampling provided by the wide-tow multi-source (e.g., 6.25Targeting Permian reservoirs on the western side of the m x 6.25 m nominal acquisition bin sizes) enables subsurfaceSouthern Bowen Basinincised valleys and beyond.imaging with frequencies above 200 Hz and thus temporal and spatial resolution in the meter-range. Dense spreads with shortMel Wilkinson and Margarita Pavlovastreamers can be complemented with longer tails if refractedSantoswaves are analysed as part of the geophysical studies, and if velocity building or quantitative interpretation (QI) requiresDespite the long history of exploration in Roma since the access to longer offsets. early 1900s, exploration for Permian reservoirs in Roma The same survey design principles can be applied to near- only commenced in the 1960 s with the advent of seismic surface high-resolution studies such as Carbon Capture andacquisition. Initially the focus was on structural plays Storage (CCS) site characterisation and CCS 4D monitoring,targeting Tinowon Formation and Lorelle Sandstone Member deep-sea mineral exploration, or offshore wind farm siteof the Muggleton Formation, with the first gas discovery in surveying. 1967. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, renewed activity included the use of underbalanced drilling and 3D seismic Typical site survey and near-surface seismic technologies aredata. This led to the discovery of several commercial gas based on hydrophone-only streamers that are towed veryfields and recognition of stratigraphic plays outside of shallow, i.e., only a few metres below the sea surface. Whilestructural closures (e.g. Churchie - Myall Creek). Recently the the shallow tow mitigates the receiver ghost problem at highfocus has shifted to targeting stratigraphic / over-pressured frequencies, the operations are exposed to weather relatedplays with thicker reservoir section, deeper in the Taroom downtime. With multi-sensor streamers, the receiver ghostTrough, such as Dunk 1. In addition, advances in well design, problem is solved at all frequencies by combining pressurecompletion and reservoir stimulation have been applied to and particle motion recordings. This means the streamers canunlock those plays.be towed deep (e.g., at 25 m) and rough sea surface effects areThis paper aims to understand factors controlling the avoided. distribution and quality of Tinowon Formation and Lorelle In our presentation, we will revisit modern streamer seismicSandstone Member reservoirs. We present the depositional configurations and show how the same concepts have recentlymodel where Tinowon and Lorelle sandstone development been used to design and acquire the first larger CCS siteis associated with palaeo incised valleys draining cratonic characterisation and baseline surveys in Europe (e.g., Northernuplands. Better quality reservoirs are sourced from the quartz Endurance/UK and Northern Lights/Norway) in 2022. rich Carboniferous Roma Granite. Within the incised valleys thinner fluvial sandstones are developed, while beyond the valley mouths thicker sandstones are developed. For the Lorelle Laterite resource definition through geophysics. Sandstone we propose the thicker sandstones are associated with a barrier / shoreline environment. Whilst stratigraphic Chris Wijns trapping is less likely, a laterally extensive play with an over-First Quantum Minerals Ltd. pressured trapping mechanism is a possibility. For the Tinowon Sandstone we suggest a fluvial-deltaic / channel system, which The Ravensthorpe nickel laterite deposits in Western Australiaallows for more stratigraphic trapping of thick sandstones are defined by different regolith layers that must be minedwithin coals. There is a limited potential of normally pressured and processed separately. A surface caprock layer is wasteconventional structural plays in the shallower heads of the material (and used as road base), beneath which are limonitepalaeo valleys. However, over-pressured stratigraphic plays and saprolite layers that are sent to separate processinglocated outboard of the palaeo valleys present an opportunity streams. As the regolith grades into saprock below this, thefor a sizeable discovery.mineral resource falls below an economic level. Within the limonite and saprolite, further variations in material properties affect processing results, including during the beneficiation,Environmental controls on the resilience of Scott Reefs, or physical upgrading stage. The boundaries between theseNWS, Australia since the Miocene: Insights from 3D layers are geometrically complicated, such that very close- seismic data.spaced drilling would be required to define them to an accuracy relevant to mining. In an effort to mitigate widerCarra Williams 1 Jody Webster1 and Victoriem Paumard2drillhole spacing, different geophysical techniques have been1 University of Sydney trialled in attempts to trace boundaries between drill holes.2 University of Western AustraliaAny technique must be rapid, with high spatial resolution, and preferably continuous, in order to cover the many kilometresThe initiation, development and survival of carbonate platforms of resource drilling and eventually be deployed in a mineand coral reefs is complex, and governed by the interplay pit during operation. Petrophysical logging serves as bothof multiple environmental forcing conditions, including; a check on the surface geophysics and a potential avenuesea level, tectonics and oceanographic factors. The North for predicting material behaviour where multi-elementWest Shelf (NWS) of Australia endured dramatic climatic and geochemical assays alone have failed. Conductivity and gammaoceanographic changes throughout the Miocene, Pliocene logging, for example, characterise discrete zones that are notand Quaternary periods, most remarkably: (1) the Mid Miocene FEBRUARY 2023 PREVIEW 152'