b'AEGC 2023Short abstractsPetrography and geochemistry of sandstones of theto the generation of both coherent noise and incoherent Permian Vryheid Formation, Highveld Coalfield ofambient noise to create realistic shot gathers in a timely manner. South Africa: Implications for provenance, palaeo- This process allows realistic synthetic data to be generated weathering and palaeo-redox conditions. to practically assess and compare different micro (source and receiver spacing) and macro (source and receiver line spacing) Lindani Ncube, Baojin Zhao, Helena van Niekerk and Sonwabilegeometries as well as other recording parameters as constraints Rasmeni are placed on the project. The spatial separation of the micro and macro-geometries are significant cost drivers and defining these University of South Australia densities to adequately meet project objectives is imperative.Provenance, palaeo-weathering and palaeo-redox conditionsThe benefits of such an approach allows the 3D survey planner of sandstones of the Vryheid Formation of the Ecca Groupto be engaged from initial theoretical design to adaptation as in the Highveld Coalfield, Mpumalanga, South Africa, wereregulatory approvals are obtained and to optimisation in the studied with the intention of identifying possible source rocks.field. Such an approach is seen as mandatory for success as The investigation approach involved collecting sandstonemore 3D surveys are undertaken in more challenging locations samples from borehole cores, followed by laboratory studies ofthrough cities and towns, adjacent to or within active mining mineralogy and petrography, major and trace element analysisoperations, or across dense farmland.by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Mineralogy and petrographic analyses suggest that these sandstones are arkosic to sub-arkosic arenites. The generalised mineralogical compositions,Digital petroleum: Perspectives of industry big in order of abundance, consist of monocrystalline anddata integration and automation - managing non-polycrystalline quartz, plagioclase, igneous and volcanicrenewable and renewable energy sources.rock fragments and minor to trace amounts of mudstone clasts. Quartz grains are predominantly monocrystalline,Shastri Nimmagadda 1, Andrew Ochan1, Neel Mani2 and Torsten implying they came from granitic and volcanic rocks and as wellReiners3as hydrothermal quartz veins. The presence of higher amounts of1 PAU, Entebbe, Uganda feldspars favours either a fast/high depositional rate and relative2 CAIR, Uttarakhand dry or a cold climate at the source area, and is also indicative of3 Curtin Universitydominance of felsic igneous or metamorphic rocks in the source area. The bulk rock geochemistry supports the petrographicIn oil and gas industries, operational digital solutions are results. The ratio of K 2 O/Na 2 O, plots of Na 2 O-CaO-K 2 O and Th- challenging because of spatially extended large size installations Sc-Zr/10 attest to a passive margin tectonic setting. Observedand the criticality of implementation solutions in business patterns of REE values, ratios of K 2 O/Al 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2,La/Sc,contexts, where rising global demand for energy needs is stirring. Th/Sc, Th/Co, and Th/Cr, plots of Th/Co vs La/Sc, Hf vs La/Th, ThUse of obsolete tools and technology, time-consuming digital vs Sc, V-Ni-Th and discriminant function further suggest felsicmakeovers, inflexible data systems for decision support, low level rock sources. The sediments were deposited by glacial material,of digital maturity and interoperable supply chain articulations underwent mechanical weathering and grinding, and thereforebetween petroleum companies are other challenges. To meet the sediments deviate from normal chemical weathering trends.the demands of digital petroleum, we construct four-layer digital The chemical index of alteration (CIA) suggests minimal chemicaldata models for better integration and automation in energy weathered source rocks typically deposited under a cool toindustries. The research aims to develop four basic platforms, a temperate climate. U content, authigenic U, V/Cr, Ni/Cu and Cu/ uniform transmission network, even repository systems, ontology Zn ratios attest to an oxidic depositional environment. interchange language (OIL) and application-layer in the digital petroleum field model. An Industrial Ethernet is proposed based Going off the grid and defining the new standard3Don a network transmission platform for the exploration industry. modelling for todays challenges. The network platform is an information superhighway to gather and integrate the existing automation sub-systems, video, voice, Megan Nightingale, Claudio Strobbia and Denis Sweeney and mobile phone information and provide standard interfaces for future sub-systems. The OIL layer supports the digital petroleum Realtimeseismic to interchange the petroleum Big Data and their ontology Subsurface imaging using surface seismic is a standarddescriptions into executable computing languages. Each layer application in the oil and gas industry and an emerging one inis responsible for gathering information, integrating ontology-mining and other energy related activities such as geothermal.driven data in a warehouse environment, and transmitting data to The theoretical sampling criteria are well known for 3D seismicdifferent petroleum industry units. Uniform hardware and software survey design. The constraints placed on implementing theseplatforms of distributed networks and their data structures improve designs in the field can be commercial, environmental and socialpetroleum resource management. Digital onshore and offshore resulting sometimes in significant departures from the theoreticalpetroleum fields can connect petroleum-bearing basins, including case. In addition, amendments to land access can be dynamicsub-basins and share information in industrial automation projects. requiring further changes to be made to survey design to meetData geoscience emerges as a digital analytics tool, irrespective technical requirements while the field operations are ongoing. of conventional or unconventional energy sources. Future energy relies on renewable sources in pollution-free environments, and The optimisation process of 3D seismic survey design is athe digital model is extendable in industries where industry continuum in that defining the different parameters of a seismicintegration and automation are required. We conceptualise the acquisition campaign to obtain the required resolution andfour-layer digital energy model as a digital solution development spatial sampling to produce accurate images must be flexible,in unconventional energy industries, extending its articulations in dynamic and fast. In this paper we will show a novel approachgreen energy automation.FEBRUARY 2023 PREVIEW 124'