b'AEGC 2023Short abstractsin poorly exposed, up to moderately altered, and/or complexlywater requirements help us in arriving at the volume of tectonised volcanic formations. We built an automatedwater utilised for irrigation purposes and defining deficiency image analysis workflow using machine-learning for crystalor surplus of storage of surface water as well as ground segmentation, followed by statistical algorithms to comparewater recharged. It also indicates the nature of interventions and match the size distribution and shape of feldspar andrequired for bringing about water use efficiency. ferromagnesian phenocrysts. The workflow comprises threeConveyance of water through underground pipelines instance segmentation models for pre-processing the images,instead of open water channel has also been recommended automated scale measurement and grain segmentation usingfor undulating land and highly permeable soils. In view of Mask RCNN. The input image is a simple photograph of a rockthe urgent need to maximise use of the available resources, specimen (or core) together with a scale. This novel techniqueit is imperative to effect utmost economy in water use by avoids the laborious and time-consuming task of manualadopting efficient and advanced methods of irrigation. picking by image analysis, and allows for rapid, unbiased andPressurised irrigation methods such as through Sprinkler, quantitative approach to determine crystal size distribution.Drip, Micro Sprinklers and Rainguns, which is run by solar We applied this method to numerous dacite intrusionsenergy, offer possibilities of achieving higher efficiencies in the highly mineralised Mt Read Volcanics, Tasmania toof water use through controlled water distribution. In aid stratigraphic correlations. This method can be appliedpressurised irrigation methods, water is applied more to a large variety of igneous rocks and is complementaryfrequently, which in turn reduces the moisture stress to to geochemical analyses and qualitative crystal contentthe plants and thus enhances the crop growth. In micro assessment. irrigation, the water is applied at a very low rate almost matching the evapo-transpiration requirement resulting into significant water savings. The main pathways for Identification of structural features using Measure- enhancing Water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture are to While-Drill data. increase the output per unit of water, reduce losses of water Lance Karlson Mark Jessell , Myra Keep , Guillaume Pirot ,to unusable sinks, reduce water degradation, and reallocate 1,2 2 2 2Mark Lindsayand Ilnur Minniakhmetov water to higher priority uses.3,2 11 BHPIntegrated measures for soil and water management.2 University of Western Australia 3 CSIRO Rajwinder KaurMeasure-While-Drill (MWD) data from blast hole drill rigs haveThe ever increasing population pressure and shrinking been used to identify structural features such as faults, foldingland and water resources are the major challenges for food styles, intrusions and cavities in iron ore mines in the Pilbarasecurity. For sustainable agriculture, soil and water are region of Western Australia. These features were unable to bethe fundamental natural resources. Intensive agricultural recognised using conventional data sources such as explorationpractices accelerate the soil health deterioration and similarly, downhole geophysics, assays and blast hole chemistry. Theseincreased exploitation of groundwater resulted in declined findings indicate that with appropriate data cleansing andof groundwater level. Effective agricultural management analysis, MWD data may be used in short term geologicalpractices are the need of the hour for protection of soil and models to inform mine planners and geotechnical engineerswater from degradation. Anthropogenic activities such as of risks to mine plans. The results also provide the ability forslash-and-burn agriculture, overgrazing, deforestation, and geologists to generate significantly more robust structuralintensive and faulty agriculture practices are accountable for models, which in turn have the potential to reduce geologicalaccelerated soil erosion. This higher rate of soil erosion leads uncertainty. to the removal of organic matter and plant nutrients from the fertile topsoil and eventually lowering crop productivity. MWD data was obtained using automated blast hole rotary drillThe higher canopy cover and crop residues mulching on rigs with a density of hole spacing between 59 m. Parameterssoil surface results in the reduced rate of surface runoff analysed included penetration rate, weight on bit, torque,and also reduces the impact of rainfall erosivity and soil rotary speed and air pressure. Case studies included both theerodibility. Vegetation cover reduces the detachment of Brockman and Marra Mamba members of the Hamersley Basin,soil particles along with the protection of soil surface from with structural interpretations validated against face mappingintensive rainfall. Moreover, it also conserves soil moisture of pit walls. and retains sediment and organic materials. Threat posed by agriculture to groundwater is a serious issue, particularly Efficient irrigation management for sustainability ofsince groundwater is a hidden resource and its degradation and rehabilitation often take place slowly. But the time agriculture and environment. has come to provide practical and sustainable solutions to Rajwinder Kaur maintain groundwater table up. A more sustainable balance is now required and is being sought in a variety of ways. The Irrigated agriculture is playing a major role in enhancingagriculture of the future requires a holistic management food and livelihood security of the country. Efficientof soil and water resources is indispensable for agricultural irrigation water management is the key to reap full benefitssustainability as well as for the protection of the natural from the available water resources. This is essentially anecosystem. Hence, the precision land leveling, Afforestation, integrated process involving conveyance, regulation,No-till farming, Direct seeded rice, Furrow Irrigated Raised Bed distribution, application and precise use of irrigation waterplanting and Crop diversification and adoption of advanced for crops. Issues related to water resources are directlyirrigation technologies is the necessity for soil and water linked to cropping pattern of a particular area. The cropconservation.FEBRUARY 2023 PREVIEW 108'