b'Canberra observed of crude oilthat will initially be in theto oil supplies. The oil will be purchasedaccording to the Department of Industry, united States. now when the price is exceptionally low,Science, Energy and Resources. Why we and stored in the uS Strategic Petroleumpersist in storing our strategic oil resources under International Energy Agency rules,Reserve caverns on the Gulf Coast. overseas is very strange. Mr Albanese said each country has an obligation to holdhe thought the decision was rather bizarre emergency oil stocks equivalent to at leastAustralia currently has sufficient oil forand did not protect Australias national 90 days of net oil imports as part of planningabout 81 days, including 25 days of stocksinterest. I would say: it does not make any to avoid a hit from any major disruptionin overseas ports and in transit to Australia,sense in the uncertain world we now live in.CSIRO provides a National Hydrogen RoadmapThis report is a good read for anyone whowill be critical if/when a hydrogen power wants to know more about hydrogen as asource proceeds. Hydrogen storage technologies can source of renewable clean energy. It wasbe broadly classified as:released earlier this year (https://www. Hydrogen may be produced via twoCompression: Gaseous hydrogen csiro.au/en/Do-business/Futures/Reports/ mature pathways: stored at higher pressures to Hydrogen-Roadmap) and aims to set outThermochemical: uses a fossil fuelincrease volume. Includes large what is needed to develop the pathwaysfeedstock to produce hydrogen. Thisscale underground storage (e.g. salt to an economically sustainable hydrogenprocess must be paired with carboncaverns) and line packing in gas industry in Australia. It summarises thecapture and storage (CCS) to producepipelines.options for production, storage, andclean hydrogen. Mature technologiesLiquefaction: Pressurising and cooling transport (see the boxes below) andinclude steam methane reforminghydrogen to -253C so that it is in a finally utilisation and the economics. (SMR), which relies on natural gas asliquid state.The thermochemical process wouldan input, and coal gasification.involve geophysical techniques, andChemical: Molecules such as Electrochemical: Involves the use ofammonia, metal hydrides and toluene technologies that have not been testedan electrical current to split waterthat carry hydrogen. All retain an commercially. The electrochemicalinto hydrogen and oxygen. Requiresadditional energy penalty and cost process would require large amounts ofthe use of low or zero emissionsassociated with the recovery of solar energy to be viable. electricity to produce clean hydrogen.hydrogen prior to use.A test facility is being established at PortMature technologies include polymer Lincoln in South Australia, at a cost ofelectrolyte membrane (PEM) and $117 million, and the outcomes from thisalkaline electrolysis (AE)CSIRO confirms hydraulic fracturing safe in Surat BasinThe results of a three-year studybefore, during and up to six monthsfurther investment in gas exploration by CSIROs gas industry social andafter hydraulic fracturing operationsand development across Australia. environmental research alliance (GISERA)at six coal seam gas wells in the SuratIt found that best practice fracking into the air, water and soil impacts ofBasin. It found current water treatmentoperations that have been adopted in hydraulic fracturing in Queenslandtechnology used for treating waterthe Basin had little to no environmental has found there is little to no impactproduced from coal seam gas wellsimpact, even water produced directly on air quality, soils, groundwater andis effective in removing hydraulicfrom the wells showed no chemical waterways. It was released in April 2020fracturing chemicals and naturallyresidues above normal background (https://gisera.csiro.au/wp-content/ occurring chemicals to within relevantlevels within 40 days of the fracking uploads/2020/04/Water-12-Milestone-7- water quality guidelines. operation taking place.final-report.pdf).The Minister for Resources, Water andThere will now be clearance to expand As part of the study, CSIRO analysedNorthern Australia, Keith Pitt, said Thegas exploration and production in the air, water and soil samples takenCSIRO report should pave the way forSurat Basin.Water for coal mining and coal-fired power production in NSW and Qld equals domestic use by 5.2 million peopleFinally, a Water for Coal report producedassumes that the average person uses157 000 L/MWh, gas-fired power stations by Ian Overton for the Australianabout 73 000 L/a. 50 000 L/MWh and nuclear power Conservation Foundation (https://www. stations 10 L/MWh.acf.org.au/water_for_coal) claims that theThe largest annual withdrawal of water used by coal mining and coal-firedfreshwater is for coal-fired power stationsThe report is an interesting read and it is to power production in New South Walesamounting to 2129 GL/a. Coal miningbe hoped that when governments assess and Queensland is equivalent to theitself withdraws approximately 225 GL/a.which way to move forward in power domestic use of 5.2 million people. ThisCoal-fired power stations withdraw aboutgeneration the cost of water is considered.JuNE 2020 PREVIEW 24'